Roger Bonnecaze

Five University professors have been elected to become members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, an international nonprofit organization, for their contributions to various areas of scientific research.

Neuroscience professor Richard Aldrich, chemical engineering professor Roger Bonnecaze, mechanical engineering professor Arumugam Manthiram, molecular biology professor Stanley Roux and pharmacy professor Karen Vasquez will all be honored by the AAAS in February 2015.

“I think the 21st century has enormous challenges,” said Gerald Fink, AAAS president and genetics professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “There are issues like climate warming, water usage, agriculture and food energy. Everyone talks about these, but the solutions are scientific solutions.”

The professors’ research will aim to provide some solutions to these important issues in the international scientific community.

Aldrich has discovered more about gated conformation changes in ion channels, whereas Roux has provided a clearer understanding about the role of environmental stimuli in regulating plant growth and development. According to the University, Vasquez has clarified that structures of the DNA can act as mutagens by changing the DNA and causing a high frequency of mutations as a result. 

Bonnecaze said he has created theoretical models and designs of complex fluids and nanomanufacturing systems.  

“Most of my research is focused on developing computational techniques and simulations of concentrated suspensions of particles in order to predict their rheology and self-assembly behavior,” Bonnecaze said. “The rheology simulations allow the design of fluids with the desired flow properties for advanced coatings, drilling fluids and personal care products. The self-assembly simulations will enable the design of solution-based processes to make memory and photonics for next generation electronic devices.”   

Through this research, Bonnecaze has studied how these particles flow and how to ensure the behavior of these particles. 

Manthiram said his research intends to create cheaper, more efficient batteries, 

“My research focuses on new materials which can lower the costs and enhance the operational life,” Manthiram said. “[These] new materials can lower the cost of the [car] battery and increase the life of the battery.”

Manthiram’s research also concentrates on novel synthesis methods and the relationship between properties and performance of materials in order to address the cost and efficiency of energy sources.

“This kind of research is happening all over the world,” Manthiram said. “I’m humbled and honored to receive this recognition, and I’ll continue [the research] I’m doing.”

Editor's Note: This article has been updated from its original version.

Professor Roger Bonnecaze, left, and UT postdoctoral student Parag Katira have made significant discoveries recently using computational models of cancer cells. By studying the mechanical factors at play in abnormal cell growth, the team hopes to shed light on new ways to battle cancerous cells. Photo Courtesy of Roger Bonnecaze

Potential for a new perspective on diagnosing, predicting and treating cancer may result from a research study involving 3-D models showing the mechanical property changes that a cancer cell undergoes, said Chemical Engineering Department chair Roger Bonnecaze.

“What’s really interesting about this work is it provides a unifying perspective to think about cancer,” Bonnecaze said.

Bonnecaze said the 3-D model was built relying on knowledge from previous studies which show that cancer cells are softer than healthy cells — they bind differently — and that cells die or divide depending on how stretched or confined they are.

“We decided to put all those elements together in a computational simulation to see how those work together for tumors to grow,” Bonnecaze said.

Bonnecaze said the 3-D model showed that multiple cancer cells together cause healthy cells to die because the healthy tissue becomes confined, while the cancer cells continue to grow.

“So what happens is the cancerous cells tend to multiply while the healthy tissue tends to die,” Bonnecaze said.

Bonnecaze also said due to the fact that cancer cells bind less, it is easy for cancer cells to break free and spread to other organs.

Bonnecaze said while cancer is still ultimately caused by genetic and environmental factors, this study showed how mechanical changes are a proximate cause of cancer.

“In order for tumor growth to occur, the cancer cells need to undergo these mechanical property changes — these binding changes,” Bonnecaze said.

Postdoctoral fellow Parag Katira, who worked on the study along with Bonnecaze and Muhammad Zaman of Boston University, said they are working on doing more research to get more experimental verification.

“We are extending the study to actually stimulate even more things seen in cancer,” Katira said.

But after everything is verified, Katira said researchers will be able to focus on manipulating the mechanical properties of cells to limit cancer progression, predict tumor growth and even kill cancer cells.

“Based on how different the mechanical properties of the cells are you can predict how fast the tumor is going to grow and where it is going to spread, and also you can find different ways to treat it,” Katira said.

Biology sophomore Anita Santpurkar said she feels cancer research is moving forward with the emergence of this and similar new studies.

“There is so much research and infrastructure being put in to it,” Santpurkar said. “We’re headed in a good way.”

Printed on Wednesday, February 1, 2012 as: Study offers new perspective on treating, diagnosing cancer